Investigation encompasses all proceedings under the legal Code aimed at gathering evidence, conducted by a police officer or an individual authorized by a Magistrate for this purpose. The term “judicial proceeding” refers to the process of collecting information or evidence about a crime, serving to determine if a crime has occurred, identify the perpetrator, apprehend the perpetrator, and provide evidence for a conviction in court. Successful attainment of these objectives leads to the resolution of the crime. Other outcomes may include the recovery of stolen property, deterring criminal behavior, and providing satisfaction to crime victims.
Under the National Accountability Ordinance 1999, an inquiry or investigation must be completed promptly. The Chairman of the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) or any authorized officer is responsible for collecting materials and evidence. If the Chairman believes that there is sufficient material against the accused to justify filing a reference, further proceedings are initiated, and the matter is referred to court.